Sunday, February 23, 2020
An Epidemic of Food Poisoning - Essay Example The etiological agents for this epidemic of food poisoning is bacteria (Emedicine, 2008). Bacterial food poisoning agents such as salmonellae, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus and vibrio cholerae are all possible etiological causes for this instance of food poisoning (Emedicine, 2008). Other agents such as E. coli and shigella are precluded because the symptoms enlisted in the case study do not corroborate with those that are manifest by victims of these latter food poisoning agents (Emedicine, 2008). The E . coli/shigella combine produce symptoms that are hemorrhagic in nature, symptoms that are absent from those listed in the case study. Among all these bacterial agents one viral agent can be included - Norwalk virus. The symptoms manifested by victims of norwalk virus poisoning corroborate exactly with those manifested by the victims of the case study epidemic (Emedicine, 2008). It was definitely food infection as enlisted bacterial or viral agents are harmful only when a substantial number enters the host's, usually humans and primates, body and multiplies and starts secreting toxins that adversely affect the host physiology. In contrast, toxification of food is usually a phenomenon that is caused by toxin producing agents like some varieties of mushrooms (Emedicine, 2008). ... Answer 2: It was definitely food infection as enlisted bacterial or viral agents are harmful only when a substantial number enters the host's, usually humans and primates, body and multiplies and starts secreting toxins that adversely affect the host physiology. In contrast, toxification of food is usually a phenomenon that is caused by toxin producing agents like some varieties of mushrooms (Emedicine, 2008). Toxins in food like large game fish can also be induced by such fish feeding on dinoflagellates like algae (Arnold, 2007). This is a source of ciguatera poisoning (Arnold, 2007). Another common source of food poisoning through toxicity in fish is scromboid poisoning associated with dark meat fish such as tuna, albacore and mackerel (Patrick, 2007). These are precluded in favor of food-borne infection by bacterial or viral agents because of lack of appropriate symptoms and duration of such symptoms. Question 3: How did the food get contaminated and which item was contaminated Answer 3: Careful study of the data attached with the case study reveals some facts. The data is of the symptoms evidenced in each person who attended the dinner at Port Allen, Louisiana, and the particular items of food each consumed there. The data also includes the particular hour and day on which the symptoms started developing and their duration. When the data set was scanned with an elimination method in which each item was scanned against persons who had eaten it and had developed the telltale symptoms - diarrhea, cramps, weakness, nausea, chills, headache, fever and vomiting - there was no clear indication that any one food item was responsible for the infection outbreak. This is quite in corroboration with what the initial laboratory analysis had revealed - that most of
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Management 4100 Cultural Diversity - Essay Example he fast casual dining experience, of which Noodles & Company is part of, is also popular with consumers aged less than 24 years because it has an informal atmosphere and offers value for money, especially after the recent economic crisis. The largest segment that is expected to visit the restaurant will be those aged between 24 and 35, especially since this is the age group that frequents fast casual restaurants the most. The reason for this is the unhurried nature of service and the provisions that fast casual restaurants make for small children (Anthony 35). Most of those aged above twenty-four are expected to be both female and male, especially because those visiting Noodles & Company in this age group will be married. It is also expected that they will have small families, maybe between one and three children, and they will be in the middle-income bracket (Walker 54). Most of them will be employed with university education. Since this restaurant is to be opened in Qatar, it is expected that they will be Muslims; although, the world cup in 2022 is expected to bring in customers of all religions. This group is made up of strivers who attach importance to status and image, contended conformers who seek to be normal and follow trends, and are traditionalists who are averse to risk taking (Walker 56). For the 18-24 age group, both genders will be targeted. This age group will not be expected to have children with them, although most Noodles & Company restaurants in the US have seen a rise in couples visiting. Their income is expected to be relatively lower than the former, and they will be students in high school and university. This group is made up of self-actualizers who are exploring change, creative, and individualistic. They are also innovators who are setting their own achievement targets and are risk takers. Finally, they are esteem seekers who are materialistic and aspire for success symbols (Walker 57). Because the 18-24 age group was the most hit by the
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Autism and Mental Retardation Essay Respond to the following: 1. List the primary features of autism. Extremely unresponsive, uncommunicative, repetitive, rigid, changing events that the child is use to doing on a daily basis can result in an outburst where he or she becomes angry and very confused, loud noises can cause an outburst as well for some 2. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? The sociocultural view is no longer valid. It is now believed that cognitive limitations and brain abnormalities are more suitable explanations. 3. What forms of treatment are helpful for a person with autism? At this time there are no treatments that can reverse autism. Some treatments that are helpful would be behavioral therapy, communication training, parent training, and community integration. Psychotropic drugs and vitamins combined with other approaches are also quite helpful. 4. List the criteria for a diagnosis of mental retardation: People with mental retardation are well below average in both intelligence and adaptive abilities. A person with mental retardation has trouble with communicating, living at home, self-direction, and work/safety. 5. Explain one way in which sociocultural biases in testing might pose problems for assessing mental retardation. Sociocultural biases would be environmental conditions and social status. People may not understand that children from good backgrounds and stimulating environments can be mentally retarded. Most people think this is limited to lower social classes 6. Of the four levels of mental retardation, into which category do most people with mental retardation fall? The four levels of retardation are mild retardation, moderate retardation, severe retardation, and profound retardation, 85% of mentally retarded people have mild retardation. 7. What are the main types of biological causes of mental retardation? The primary causes of moderate, severe, and profound retardation are: biological,although people who function at these levels also are affected greatly by their family and social environment. Sometimes genetic factors are at the root of theseÃ biological problems, in the form of chromosomal or metabolic disorders. Other biological causes of these kinds of mental retardation come from unfavorable conditions that occur before, during, or after birth, such as birth injuries. 8. What is the only way to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome? For the mother to not drink alcohol while pregnant 9. What are normalization and mainstreaming? Normalization: The principle that institutions and community residences should expose people with mental retardation to living conditions and opportunities similar to those found in the rest of society. Mainstreaming: The placement of children with mental retardation in regular school classes, also known as inclusion 10. What is your opinion about mainstreaming and normalization for children and adults with autism or mental retardation? My thoughts about mainstreaming for the children and adults with autism and mental retardation, I feel that it is not a good idea placing the children with mental retardation, they do need more supervision and attention, and for this reason if being in a regular class they would not get the attention and or supervision they need. I do feel that it is good to expose the children and adults into the society, they are not no different than anyone else.
Monday, January 20, 2020
It was just yesterday when Electronic health records was just introduced in healthcare industry. People were not ready to accept it due to higher cost and consumption of time associated in training people and adopting new technology. Despite of all this criticism, use of Internet and Electronic Health records are now gaining its popularity among health care professionals, as it is the most effective way to communicate with patient and colleagues. More and more hospitals and clinics are getting rid of paper base filling system and investing in cloud base storage. According to HIMSS The Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a longitudinal electronic record of patient health information generated by one or more encounters in any care delivery setting. It includes information from patient demographics, medications, to the laboratory reports. Introduction of Electronic Medical Records in healthcare organizations was to improve the quality care and to lessen the cost by standardizing the means of communication and reducing the errors. However, it raises the Ã¢â¬Å"eyebrowsÃ¢â¬ of many when it comes to patient confidentiality and privacy among healthcare organization. The Problem is 1. Transfer of Information- The problem is remote access of the health records and pooling of large number of data for various purposes like research program and lab work, may lead to an error and confusion. 2. Lack of information centralization- Many patients keep their own records of blood sugars, weight and blood pressure by using various Internet tools. However, healthcare providers cannot access these records because they cannot streamline those records with EHR. 3. Security theft - Internet tools like Google health and Microsoft Vault provides conveni... ...idence of users by agreeing to the policy that the data submitted to their cloud platform will be kept confidential. (Ryan, 2011) The cloud computing is still under development but if it can manage to maintain information privacy and confidentiality than it will become revolutionary in healthcare field. And we never know, in future science and technology might introduce more advanced level of apps and service with enhanced level of privacy and security measures. Patient personalized health cards are also long underling technology that might provide patient a freedom of owning his/her PHI. Transferring data from one hospital to another wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a challenge with this password protected health cards. Privacy wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be much of an issue as all the information is stored in the chip of the card that can be retrieve by a healthcare provider or by patient when needed.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
ItÃ¢â¬â¢s comfortable, interesting, attractive and appropriate for the child or children who use it. For some children it becomes like a second home where they eat and sometimes sleep. A suitable environment for a young baby will be very different from a suitable environment for a four or five year old although some features will be the same. Environments should be attractive and make children feel safe and secure and happy to be there and they should also be places where children can confidently play and learn. Research framework that supports a positive environment for children At the heart of this framework is an approach which recognises the right of all young children to high quality relationships, environments and services which offer a holistic approach to meeting their needs. Such needs should be interpreted broadly and encompass play, learning, social relationships and emotional and physical wellbeing. This approach is important for all children but is of particular benefit in offering effective support to those children and families requiring higher levels of support. Early intervention has relevance to a wide range of social policy but it is particularly relevant in early years, which will often be the earliest and best opportunity to intervene. We have identified 4 principles of early intervention. In short, these are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ we want all to have the same outcomes and the same opportunities; Ã¢â¬ ¢ we identify those at risk of not achieving those outcomes and take steps to prevent that risk materialising; Ã¢â¬ ¢ where the risk has materialised, we take effective action; Ã¢â¬ ¢ we work to help parents, families and communities to develop their own solutions, using accessible, high quality public services as required Outcome 3 how to look after childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s skin, hair and teeth How does a positive environment and routine support children and their families emotional needs? It teaches children how to behave with people in general, so it would help children know how to communicate with their parents and families positively and how to speak to visitors politely. It could also help children to talk to staff about worries they have if the staff are positive and approachable. Having a positive environment also allows parents to talk to the staff and feel included and equal. why is it important for children to have physical and mental time? Basics for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s good physical health: Nutritious food Adequate shelter and sleep Exercise Immunizations Healthy living environment Basics for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s good mental health: Unconditional love from family Self-confidence and high self-esteem The opportunity to play with other children Encouraging teachers and supportive caretakers Safe and secure surroundings Appropriate guidance and discipline Give children unconditional love. Love, security and acceptance should be at the heart of family life. Children need to know that your love does not depend on his or her accomplishments. Mistakes and/or defeats should be expected and accepted. Confidence grows in a home that is full of unconditional love and affection. Nurture childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence and self-esteem. Praise Them Ã¢â¬â Encouraging childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s first steps or their ability to learn a new game helps them develop a desire to explore and learn about their surroundings. Allow children to explore and play in a safe area where they cannot get hurt. Assure them by smiling and talking to them often. Be an active participant in their activities. Your attention helps build their self-confidence and self-esteem. Set Realistic Goals Ã¢â¬â Young children need realistic goals that match their ambitions with their abilities. With your help, older children can choose activities that test their abilities andÃ increase their self-confidence. Be Honest Ã¢â¬â Do not hide your failures from your children. It is important for them to know that we all make mistakes. It can be very re-assuring to know that adults are not perfect. Avoid Sarcastic Remarks Ã¢â¬â If a child loses a game or fails a test, find out how he or she feels about the situation. Children may get discouraged and need a pep talk. Later, when they are ready, talk and offer assurance. Encourage children Ã¢â¬â To not only strive to do their best, but also to enjoy the process. Trying new activities teaches children about teamwork, self-esteem and new skills. Encourage Children to Play To children, play is just fun. However, playtime is as important to their development as food and good care. Playtime helps children be creative, learn problem-solving skills and learn self-control. Good, hardy play, which includes running and yelling, is not only fun, but helps children to be physically and mentally healthy. Children Need Playmates Sometimes it is important for children to have time with their peers. By playing with others, children discover their strengths and weaknesses, develop a sense of belonging, and learn how to get along with others. Consider finding a good childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s program through neighbors, local community centers, schools, or your local park and recreation department. Parents Can be Great Playmates Join the fun! Playing Monopoly or coloring with a child gives you a great opportunity to share ideas and spend time together in a relaxed setting. Play for FunÃ Winning is not as important as being involved and enjoying the activity. One of the most important questions to ask children is Ã¢â¬Å"Did you have fun?Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ not Ã¢â¬Å"Did you win?Ã¢â¬ In our goal-oriented society, we often acknowledge only success and winning. This attitude can be discouraging and frustrating to children who are learning and experimenting with new activities. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s more important for children to participate and enjoy themselves Why is it important for children to have quiet and rest time? He body needÃ time each day to recover from all the activity it has been doing, this is achieved through sleep and rest. There are 3 levels of quiet period. -sleep times are especially required for babies and toddlers, try to make sure that daytime naps are planned for the early afternoon so that the child will still sleep at night. -rest periods are needed for toddlers and pre-school -queit activitites are essential for all age groups as a break between other activities and a chance to recuperate these include things such as story time, doing a quiet activity ort listening to music all of which should use material that is soothing and not stimulating. Older children may enjoy watching tv for a short period of time Explain the basic nutrional requirements of children and young people Plenty of fruit and vegetables Ã¢â¬â childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s growing bodies require good nutrition and fruit and veg contain a multiple of vitamins, minerals and other healthy compounds. Citrus fruits and strawberries are rich in immunce system boosting vitamin C, carrots are loaded with eye health vitamin A and spinach is a good source if iron. Eating well also decreases the chance of childhood obesitiy and encourages health life style. Plenty of potatoes, bread, rice ,pasta and other starchy foods-starchy foods are a good source of energy and the mains source of a range of nutrients in a child diet, as well as starch they contain fibre, calcium, iron and B vitamins. The protein helps a childs body to grow and repair itself, the fibre helps get rid of waste products, and B vitamins help release energy and help to body to work properly. Some milk and dairy foods-milk and dairy products provide calcium, phosphorous, magenesium and protein which are all essential for health bone growth and development which can prevent and protect children from diseases such as brittle bone disorder later in life. The amounts of calcium in dair products are also beneficial for the development and maitainance of health teeth. Some meat, fish, eggs ,beans and other non-dairy sources of protein- these foods are rich in protein which is needed for lots of functions throughout the body, it is also a good source of vitamin B12 and iron which will help prevent iron deficincy anaemia, which is a common condition found in children and can result in children having little energy and looking pale. Explain the governments guidance on a balanced nutritional diet? The UKÃ¢â¬â¢s national food guide, the eatwell plate, defines the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s advice on a healthy balance diet. The eatwell plate is a visual representation of how different foods contribute towards a healthy balanced diet. The plate model has been tested extensively with consumers and health professionals. The size of the segments for each of the food groups is consistent with government recommendations for a diet that would provide all the nutrients required for a healthy adult or child (over the age of 5). The eatwell plate, based on the 5 food groups, makes healthy eating easier to understand by giving a visual representation of the types and proportions of foods needed for a healthy balanced diet. Choosing a variety of foods from within the 4 main food groups will add to the range of nutrients consumed. This includes: plenty of fruit and vegetablesÃ plenty of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods some milk and dairy foodsÃ some meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non dairy sources of protein Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar are not essential to a healthy diet, and should be consumed only in small amounts. Full weeks menu for placement. Where would you store the information on the child/young person who has their dietary needs? This information is made clear to all memebers of staff as we all help with dinner time, it is also kept in the childs file and is kept in the kitchen and on the side of the fridge. Who would know this information? Everyone at nursery is made aware as well all take part in food times Explain the basic food safety when providing food and drink to children/young people? Cover food= food is kept covered at all times to stop any dust, or flies that may get onto the food. Food is also cover to stop if from going bad/stale before it is given out to the children Label childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s own items- if a child brings in their own food/drink it is recorded in the base room of that childÃ¢â¬â¢s diary it is made aware to allÃ members of staff that the food has been brought in for that specific child. It is labeled with the childÃ¢â¬â¢s full name and base room and is stored correctly In date= all food is checked daily for food that is going out of date or is out of date, we give food out from the dates which are closer to becoming out of date first. If food has become out of date it is thrown away. Provide plates=plates are touched with staff who wear gloves and are washed in the dishwasher whenever they are used, the plates are dried then put away is a cupboard Wear gloves/aprons when dealing with food= all memebers of staff who are in the conservatory have to wear gloves when giving out food or drink or helping children with their dinner. Aprons are worn by the cook when preparing all meals Let child/young people choose their own food= at placement we give the child an option of a different side either beans,spaghetti, rice or so on the child is shown two bowls and points to the bowl they want the child does not tough the food in the bowl and when had been given a bowl canot swap for something else. How should a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s bottle be warmed=babys bottles are warmed by either poorinh water into the kettle boiling it then added the the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s milk and left to cool or if able to the babys bottle is heated in the microwave and left to cool.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Descartes Meditations The way Descartes chose to write this piece literature captivated me. Descartes was a very intelligent man who wanted to make sense of the world he lived in. The format he used was unusual. It seems to me that he may have used this format, which is a replication of the book of Genesis in the Bible, to have a deeper and more profound impact on the reader. There are many similarities between Descartes Meditations and the first book of the Bible, Genesis. For example, Descartes Meditations was written one day at a time, just as God had created the world one day at a time. Furthermore, the order Descartes daily writings took resembled the same order the Bible had for the creation of the world.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The issue of our physical bodies can be argued in day seven of Gods creation, when He created man in His own image. Meditation Two in Meditations discusses the nature of the human mind. According to the Bible, on the second day of creation, God made the firmamen t, and divided the waters from the waters. God called the firmament Heaven. (Bible Gen. 1:6) Descartes demonstrates his belief that the mind is free. This meditation is my favorite. In the beginning of it, Descartes seems so confused and lost. He questions every little thing around him and within himself. I recall a time in my own life when I felt like that. It was scary when I read this, for it brought back some very terrible memories of my time going through menopause! I, too, had questioned some of the exact same things he was questioning. My doctor informed me that I had a chemical imbalance in my brain due to the lack of estrogen my body was used to. Given my own personal experience, I see Descartes meditation in two ways. Perhaps Descartes also had some mental disorders, or else my doctor was wrong and I had reason to feel the way I felt. Perhaps the lack of estrogen in my system made me see things more clearly. I seriously doubt the latter explanation. However, i n this meditation, Descartes is separating the mind from the brain, just as God had separated the waters and sky, and created Heaven. I think this meditation was, in almost every way, similar to day two in Genesis.Show MoreRelated The Meditations by Rene Descartes1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ Meditations, his goal to prove the existence of things could only be accomplished if he was logical, clear, and correct in his thoughts and writings. The most important issues he noted were the threat of being deceived and the potential of being incorrect in his judgments, both of which would lead him into error. Error exists as a problem that individuals encounter on a regular basis, and it also exists as a focal point in DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ Meditations. 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Then I will go on to explain how it isRead MoreThe Philosophy Of Descartes Meditations1698 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDescartes Meditations is said to be the beginning of Western Philosophy. His writings are still greatly referred to to this day, and he is most famous for his quote Ã¢â¬Å"cogito ergo sumÃ¢â¬ which translates to Ã¢â¬Å"I think, therefore I am.Ã¢â¬ Each of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ meditations are followed by objections from other theologists and philosophers, and thereon followed by replies from Descartes. Some objections are made stronger than others, for example, Thomas Hobbes, and it could be doubted whether or not DescartesRead MoreThe Meditations By Rene Descartes1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRenÃ © Descartes main goal in the Meditations is to establish that one exists and that a perfect God exists. However, he first argues that the idea that everything perceived around one could be false because the senses are sometimes deceiving. In the first Meditation, Descartes introduces skepticism and brings forth a method of doubt in which he evaluates his beliefs, and questions whether they are true or false and why they should be doubted. He presents various hypothesis that prove there is reasonRead MoreDescartes Meditations Of First Philosophy857 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesChristopher Joao Philosophy- 201 Mr. Jurkiewicz 4 March 2016 DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ - Meditation #2 Rene Descartes was a French philosopher born in 1596. He is considered by many the father of modern philosophy and continues to have tremendous influence in the philosophical world to this day. The book, Meditations of First Philosophy, consist of six meditations and describes one meditation per day for six days. In meditation two, he claims that we have better knowledge of our own minds than of the physicalRead MoreAnalysis Of Descartes s The Meditations Essay1580 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThroughout the Meditations, Descartes successfully establishes methodical doubt about math and all sensory information, however, his answer to the doubt cast by the Evil Demon ploy does not fully relieve the dilemma of skepticism that his intense application of doubt has brought forth. Ultimately, Descartes is unable to satisfactorily answer the Evil Demon doubt because his argument does not prove that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence would not prevent the serious errors in judgment and perception caused by t he Evil
Friday, December 27, 2019
Digested molecules of food, as well as water and minerals from the diet, are absorbed from the cavity of the upper small intestine. The absorbed materials cross the mucosa into the blood, mainly, and are carried off in the bloodstream to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change. This part of the digestive system process varies with different types of nutrients. Nutrient Absorption in the Digestive System Carbohydrates An average American adult eats about half a pound of carbohydrate each day. Some of our most common foods contain mostly carbohydrates. Examples are bread, potatoes, pastries, candy, rice, spaghetti, fruits, and vegetables. Many of these foods contain both starch, which can be digested and fiber, which the body cannot digest. The digestible carbohydrates are broken into simpler molecules by enzymes in the saliva, in juice produced by the pancreas, and in the lining of the small intestine. Starch is digested in two steps: First, an enzyme in the saliva and pancreatic juice breaks the starch into molecules called maltose; then an enzyme in the lining of the small intestine (maltase) splits the maltose into glucose molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is stored or used to provide energy for the work of the body. Table sugar is another carbohydrate that must be digested to be useful. An enzyme in the lining of the small intestine digests table sugar into glucose and fructose, each of which can be absorbed from the intestinal cavity into the blood. Milk contains yet another type of sugar, lactose, which is changed into absorbable molecules by an enzyme called lactase, also found in the intestinal lining. Protein Foods such as meat, eggs, and beans consist of giant molecules of protein that must be digested by enzymes before they can be used to build and repair body tissues. An enzyme in the juice of the stomach starts the digestion of swallowed protein. Further digestion of the protein is completed in the small intestine. Here, several enzymes from the pancreatic juice and the lining of the intestine carry out the breakdown of huge protein molecules into small molecules called amino acid. These small molecules can be absorbed from the hollow of the small intestine into the blood and then be carried to all parts of the body to build the walls and other parts of cells. Fats Fat molecules are a rich source of energy for the body. The first step in digestion of a fat such as butter is to dissolve it into the water content of the intestinal cavity. The bile acids produced by the liver act as natural detergents to dissolve fat in water and allow the enzymes to break the large fat molecules into smaller molecules, some of which are fatty acids and cholesterol. The bile acids combine with the fatty acids and cholesterol and help these molecules to move into the cells of the mucosa. In these cells, the small molecules are formed back into large molecules, most of which pass into vessels (called lymphatics) near the intestine. These small vessels carry the reformed fat to the veins of the chest, and the blood carries the fat to storage depots in different parts of the body. Vitamins The large, hollow organs of the digestive system contain muscle that enables their walls to move. The movement of organ walls can propel food and liquid and also can mix the contents within each organ. Typical movement of the esophagus, stomach, and intestine is called peristalsis. The action of peristalsis looks like an ocean wave moving through the muscle. The muscle of the organ produces a narrowing and then propels the narrowed portion slowly down the length of the organ. These waves of narrowing push the food and fluid in front of them through each hollow organ. Water and Salt Most of the material absorbed from the cavity of the small intestine is water in which salt is dissolved. The salt and water come from the food and liquid we swallow and the juices secreted by the many digestive glands. In a healthy adult, more than a gallon of water containing over an ounce of salt is absorbed from the intestine every 24 hours. Digestion Control A fascinating feature of theÃ digestive systemÃ is that it contains its own regulators. Hormone Regulators The major hormones that control the functions of the digestive system are produced and released by cells in the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine. These hormones are released into theÃ bloodÃ of the digestive tract, travel back to theÃ heartÃ and through theÃ arteries, and return to the digestive system, where they stimulate digestive juices and cause organ movement. The hormones that control digestion are gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin (CCK): Gastrin causes the stomach to produce an acid for dissolving andÃ digesting some foods. It is also necessary for the normal growth of the lining of the stomach, small intestine, and colon.Secretin causes theÃ pancreasÃ to send out aÃ digestive juiceÃ that is rich in bicarbonate. It stimulates the stomach to produce pepsin, an enzyme that digests protein, and it also stimulates the liver to produce bile.CCK causes the pancreas to grow and to produce the enzymes of pancreatic juice, and it causes the gallbladder to empty. Nerve Regulators Two types ofÃ nervesÃ help to control the action of the digestive system. Extrinsic (outside) nerves come to the digestive organs from the unconscious part of theÃ brainÃ or from theÃ spinal cord. They release a chemical called acetylcholine and another called adrenaline. Acetylcholine causes the muscle of the digestive organs to squeeze with more force and increase the push of food and juice through the digestive tract. Acetylcholine also causes the stomach and pancreas to produce more digestive juice. Adrenaline relaxes the muscle of the stomach and intestine and decreases the flow of blood to theseÃ organs. Even more important, though, are the intrinsic (inside) nerves, which make up a very dense network embedded in the walls of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and colon. The intrinsic nerves are triggered to act when the walls of the hollow organs are stretched by food. They release many different substances that speed up or delay the movement of food and the production of juices by the digestive organs. Sources Your Digestive System and How It Works. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Updated Sept. 2013. Web. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Anatomy/your-digestive-system/Pages/anatomy.aspx.