Monday, May 25, 2020

Ford Motor Company Business Plan Examples

Outline four strategic options Ford is pursuing to increase its profitability. Describe each of the four options. For each option list two criteria, you would use to evaluate the option. The first strategic option that Ford is pursuing to increase its profitability is to close down older plants in order realign production and sales. This would help to reduce the number of vehicles that are produced per year since the company is currently producing more than the demand for the vehicles is available, leading to reduced prices. The older plants are not as efficient as the new plants, and require a massive input of labour to create the finished products. Closing them down has the advantage in that it helps cut down the number of workers who are costing the company a lot of money in terms of salaries and other employee benefits, as well as reduce the production cost since the newer plants are more efficient. Cutting down the number of cars produced will have no negative effect on the revenue, since the company is already producing more than the market can absorb. In fact, this can help to stimulate demand and increase prices as the supply goes down (Graham, 2008). This option can be assessed in terms of the savings that the company will accrue from the reduced cost of production since the remaining factories are deemed to be more efficient. Also, the there must be an assessment of the demand change when production is reduced since this is expected to change once the supply goes down. The expected increase in demand should be able to sustain the remaining factories effectively. The second strategic option is to focus on production of smaller cars and eliminate or reduce the production of SUVs and trucks. Smaller cars are fast moving and are in line with Ford’s original mission. This will help to eliminate from the production some products that are not selling at the moment, and allow the company to focus on what is making sense. To implement this, the company needs to compare the market share of each model before discontinuing its production, and also determine the loss in revenue since these brands fetch high prices in the market. The third option is to focus marketing away from North America, to other promising markets in the world. This will open doors to new markets that can guarantee future survival of the company. This will help to maintain the current brands and products, once the market is diversified. This option can be evaluated in terms of the expected market size that is going to be reached, as well as the costs of doing business in these new markets (Steiner, 2007). The fourth option is to sell the Premier Automotive Group that deals with the high-end brands, so that the company is left to focus on other middle and low-end brand, in line with Ford’s traditional way of doing things. These premier brands constitute of low-sale volumes. The company needs to assess the profitability of the group and if it will affect the market of Ford cars, as well as the expected benefits from selling this group. In light of the possibility that market, conditions can and do change, discuss at least three examples of how the company should build-in flexibility to back-up its decision-making process. Ford would need to be responsive to change in market conditions and make exceedingly appropriate and timely measures in order to benefit. This would require a highly efficient decision making process, which can respond to market opportunities without delays. To benefit from such opportunities, the company can form a regular multi department team that can meet regularly and weigh the options available for the company, in order to benefit from the changing trends in the market (Graham, 2008). In addition, the company can improve information sharing and market situation information among its top decision making organs, so that the decisions made will be done after full consideration of the options available and there will be no delays in taking advantage of new opportunities. The company can also form a strategic management team that will focus on market studying market structures and trends, so that opportunities and course for action will be identified early enough (Steiner, 2007). Discuss how an effective action plan can be created and how progress can be monitored. An effective action plan for the company would require more than just formulating the policies, but also doing an in-depth analysis of the situation on the ground. The company should define the end that it wants to be, and the devise the means of getting there. This would involve first of all analysing every possible option, its merits, demerits and also the opportunity costs that will be involved, it would be appropriate for the company to consider different options and weigh each of them and combine them to determine what will work best for the company as well as what does not work for this company. Once a plan is devised, monitoring should be done on a set timeline to ensure that there will be no deviation in the plan. List at least three steps that make-up a workable plan and explain why each is important. A workable plan needs to have several steps for it to be effective. One of this is a means to evaluate the progress that is made, which should be in concise steps and measurable criteria. In addition, there should be a means of assessment so that changes in the external environment, which may necessitate a change in plans, may be detected. This will help prevent the plan from becoming obsolete in the course of implementation. The plan needs to have time specified steps and actions (Graham, 2008). By defining the time for every action that will be taken, it will be possible to micro-manage the implementation and identify early risks of failure. Discuss the option or combination of options you selected as the best course of action for Ford Motor Company and detail your reasons for selecting that option or combination of options. The option to take for the company is to close down the old manufacturing plants and focus on the new emerging markets in the world. This would help to improve efficiency in the United States manufacturing plants as well as help the company to prepare doing business in the new markets, which may require setting up assembly lines in these places and employing the use of new technologies in these regions. Expansion into the new markets would prove exceptionally deferential because this would offer a significant potential for growth and prevent the company from forgoing the sale of premier brands (Steiner, 2007). References Steiner, G. (2007). Strategic Planning. New York: Simon and Schuster. Graham, J. H. (2008). Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning. New York: Prentice Hall

Friday, May 15, 2020

How Bloodletting And Human Sacrifice - 1235 Words

The practice of bloodletting and human sacrifice ritual is undoubtedly important in the life of the Mayans. The bloodletting allows the ruler the ability to communicate with the Gods and their ancestors. While the human sacrifice is connected to the continuation of the cosmos and the resurrection of the agricultural seasons. A summary and a discussion of the book Popol Vuh is presented, on the topic of reassurance theme of human sacrifice is addressed in this paper. The examination of how bloodletting and human sacrifice is crucial to the Mayan culture, and how these rituals provided the stability of social and political aspect of the Mayan society. Introduction Mesoamerica is the area in which the ancient Maya had lived, and is the area where modern Mayans are still reside. According to Coe, the Mayan geographic can range from Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Yucatan Peninsula, and the Mexican States of Chiapas and Tabasco (1966:17). Yet these areas are not limited to just Mayan. Many structural architecture remains today has proven the complexity of the Mayan culture in Mesoamerica. The Mayan history consisted of three main phases. The Preclassic period, the Classic period, and the Late Classic period. With each period containing several subdivisions. The Preclassic period started at the time civilization first emerged in Mesoamerica, around 1500 B.C., to about A.D. 250/300. The Preclassic period phase contained three subdivisions. The Early Preclassic, theShow MoreRelatedHuman Sacrifice And The Gods Essay1360 Words   |  6 Pagesdripped down off the sacrificial table as the priest cuts out the man’s heart to offer it to the gods.â€Å" The occurrence of human sacrifice can usually be related to the recognition of human blood as the sacred life force†(â€Å"Human Sacrificing†). The thought of human sacrificing may seem inhuman or uncivilized; however, in the ancient times, it was considered a prayer for better times. Human sacrificing was not only a ritual act to earn a god s favor, but also for a greater cause. Usually people would benefitRead MoreAncient Civilization And The Mayan People917 Words   |  4 PagesEvery ancient civilization had a set of beliefs and the Mayan people were no different. The Mayan people believed in two worlds, the â€Å"everyday world and the underworld, or the Place of Awe,† (2012). The Mayans believed in many gods, human sacrifice and the burial process for the poor and the kings were very different. The Mayans became around 250 AD and the Olmec’s influenced their religious culture. It was not until 900 AD that the Mayans began to flourish in cities across modern day Mexico, GuatemalaRead MoreThe Gods Of Aztec Religion975 Words   |  4 Pagesaround to date. Just how complex the culture was the religion followed suit. The Aztec religion was an intricate part of their way of life. The Aztec’s believed in a completely different way than most religions are today. We will discuss some of the early beginnings of the religion and how it got started all the way to the details of what and how they believed and â€Å"prayed†. As most people know the Aztec’s as well as the Mayan culture believed heavily in a many gods, sacrifices, and all nature aroundRead MoreThe Aztec Human Sacrifices Essay1175 Words   |  5 PagesThe Aztec civilization was a very complex society that was feared and known well for their various gory sacrifices done to please their many god s in their polytheistic religion. The much feared civilization began by the exile of one of the two Toltec leaders, which lead to the decline of the Toltec state that was later replaced by Mexica, or the Aztecs. According to the Aztecs, the land chosen to build their main city was chosen by the portrayal of an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in itsRead MoreMayan Culture vs. the Seven Dimensions of Religion1038 Words   |  5 PagesMayan Culture vs. the Seven Dimensions of Religion Since the dawn of humanity, human beings have been contemplating the meaning of life, searching for answers to make sense of their existence. Even ancient people tried to answer the same taunting questions about their purpose on earth and the questions about the world, which people nowadays search for. Thus, in seeking the answers, ancient people created religions, usually based on their understanding of cosmology. Cosmology is a general understandingRead MoreThe Mayan Culture Of Mesoamerica1840 Words   |  8 PagesWhich aid many archeologists today in the understanding of the historical records of the Mayan civilization. The Maya were once thought to be a peaceful culture and removed from activities such as human sacrifice and blood offerings (Schele and Miller 1986:15). However, human sacrifice and bloodletting rituals are unquestionably important in the Mayan culture as demonstrated through Maya art and hieroglyphic texts. By performing such act, Maya rulers and elite participa nt would be able to openedRead MoreThe Maya And The Mayan Civilization1439 Words   |  6 Pagesarchitectural people, their religion still had a vital role in their lives. One thing the ancient Mayans did was have festivals, which would tie into their harvest. It was a big celebration for the thanking the gods for their plentiful harvest. It was like how the Pilgrims celebrated Thanksgiving. The Mayans were known for keeping track of their times of harvest (Jarus). Some of the important things the Mayans planted were corn, or as they called it â€Å"maize,† beans, squash, and cassava (manioc) (Maya, McManus)Read MoreThe Ideas Of Regeneration Of Time And Calendrical Rites1548 Words   |  7 Pagesthe gods at Teotihaucan, the Sun of Motion, Nahui Ollin, is created. Just as the gods had to sacrifice themselves, so humans must supply their own hearts and blood to ensure that the fifth sun continues to move in its path.† (Aztec and Maya Myths, Page 44) ; which demonstrates the regeneration and periodic purification aspect, because at the end of a 52 year cycle the Aztecs would need to make sacrifices in order to keep the world going. This can be further confirmed when Mircea Eliade says â€Å"RegenerationRead MoreArt Of The Indigenous Americas2071 Words   |  9 Pagesthe American continents over the past five hundred years. Artworks and archaeological sites of the Indigenous Americas provide archaeologists and scholars with crucial information about how the indigenous people lived, their beliefs and the influence of these beliefs on their religious practices and rituals, and how their societies were structured. Chavin Archaeological Site is located in the high valleys of the Peruvian Andes. It has a striking appearance, complete with a complex of terraces and squaresRead MoreThe Culture Of The Mayas, And The Aztecs1693 Words   |  7 PagesMayas, and the Aztecs has been extremely fundamental in understanding my ancestry, being that I am Mexican American. I took an interest in their beautiful architecture, their ritualistic and sacrificial religious practices, as well as their history and how they began. Throughout this paper I will outline the similarities and differences of these two cultures, as well as articulate an understanding of the humanity disciplines outlined above. The Maya are probably the best-known of the classical civilizations

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Is Yersinia Pestis A Bacterial Infection Responsible For...

Yersinia Pestis is a bacterial infection responsible for the deaths of millions of people starting in the 1300’s and still continues to infect people to this day. This bacterial strain is the basis of three very serious and potentially fatal diseases: the Bubonic plague, the Pneumonic Plague, and the septicemic Plague. The difference between the plagues is primarily the location of the infection but the symptoms also vary as well. The bubonic plague attacks the Lymphatic system whereas the Pneumonic plague focuses the respiratory system and the Septicemic plague targets the blood stream. Although the plagues alter in symptoms and means of infection, they all relate and depend on each other in some way. The bubonic plague was the largest epidemic and owes it’s success to the collaboration of the three variations, Yersinia Pestis was introduced to humans through the Bubonic version but wouldn’t have spread nearly as much if it weren’t for the airborne effect s of the Pneumonic version which can infect humans without the means of other organisms such as fleas. The Bubonic Plague (also known as the black death) is the most common of the three and first arrived in Europe in 1347, it would eventually kill millions people, totaling nearly a third of the continents population. The disease was first recorded in central Asia in 1338 and spread to the south and east by early 1346, making easy headway by hitchhiking through travelers and merchants traversing trade routes across both landShow MoreRelatedDeath by the Black Plague1017 Words   |  4 Pagesaround 80-200 million people mostly throughout Europe, leaving most people back then wondering how they and others got sick and died. â€Å"Evidence available from rural continental Europe suggests a slow spread of human mortality across trade and travel routes, patterns consistent† (Carmichael 3), until after multiple inventions such as printing, word spread of this murderer, preventing more deaths and to treat those affected. This disease is known throughout the world as the Black Death and still lingersRead MoreThe Late Middle Ages Essay1713 Words   |  7 Pagesinsatiable territorial appetites and religious fanaticism contributed greatly to create instability and war among the people. However, one of the greatest villain during this period was an undetectable foe, named Yersinia Pestis. This bacterium was responsible for the horrific Black Death, which ravaged Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 14th century, killing over 50 million people. In urban centers like Paris and Hamburg, 50% to 60% of the residents perished. All this happened in the middle of theRead MoreConcerns of Bioterrorism2788 Words   |  11 PagesUS/Guam What is Bioterrorism? What are the types of Bioterrorism? What issues or concerns should we be aware of when talking about Bioterrorism? How is Bioterrorism different from the United States and that of Guam? These are some of the things people would think of and wonder when they hear the word Bioterrorism. It’s important to know the different steps or precautions that a person can look into in order to prevent themselves from being a victim of Bioterrorism. First things first, Bioterrorism

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Growth of Hotel Industries in India free essay sample

Taking advantage of this opportunity Tata group and another hotel chain called Homotel have entered this business segment. According to a report, Hotel Industry in India currently has supply of 110,000 rooms and there is a shortage of 150,000 rooms fueling hotel room rates across India. According to estimates demand is going to exceed supply by at least 100% over the next 2 years. Five-star hotels in metro cities allot same room, more than once a day to different guests, receiving almost 24-hour rates from both guests against 6-8 hours usage. With demand-supply disparity, hotel rates in India are likely to rise by 25% annually and occupancy by 80%, over the next two years. This will affect the competitiveness of India as a cost-effective tourist destination. To overcome, this shortage Indian hotel industry is adding about 60,000 quality rooms, currently in different stages of planning and development, which should be ready by 2012. Hotel Industry in India is also set to get a fillip with Delhi hosting 2010 Commonwealth Games. We will write a custom essay sample on Growth of Hotel Industries in India or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Government has approved 300 hotel projects, nearly half of which are in the luxury range. The future scenario of Indian hotel industry looks extremely rosy. It is expected that the budget and mid-market hotel segment will witness huge growth and expansion while the luxury segment will continue to perform extremely well over the next few years. What is the reason behind this sudden growth in the hotel industry in India? The hotel industry in India is going through an interesting phase. The industry has a capacity of 110,000 rooms. According to the tourism ministry, 4. 4 million tourists visited India last year and at the current rate, the demand will soar to 10 million by 2010 – to accommodate 350 million domestic travelers. The hotels of India have a shortage of 150,000 rooms fueling hotel room rates across India. With tremendous pull of opportunity, India has become a destination for hotel chains looking for growth. Due to such a huge potential available in this segment, several global hotel chains like the Hilton, Accor, Marriott International, Berggruen Hotels, Cabana Hotels, Premier Travel Inn (PTI), InterContinental Hotels group and Hampshire among others have all announced major investment plans for the country. The Governments move to declare hotel and tourism industry as a high priority sector with a provision for 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) has also provided a further impetus in attracting investments in to this industry. It is estimated that the hospitality sector is likely to see US$ 11. 41 billion rise in the next two years, with around 40 international hotel brands making their presence known in the country by 2011. Simultaneously, international hotel asset management companies are also likely to enter India. Already, US-based HVS International has firmed up plans to enter India, and industry players believe others like Ashford Hospitality Trust and IFA Hotels Resorts among others are likely to follow suit. One of the major reasons for the increase in demand for hotel rooms in the country is the boom in the overall economy and high growth in sectors like information technology, telecom, retail and real estate. Rising stock market and new business opportunities are also attracting hordes of foreign investors and international corporate travelers to look for business opportunities in the country. Also India has been ranked as the fourth most preferred travel destination and with Lonely Planet selecting the country among the top five destinations from 167 countries; India has finally made its mark on the world travel map. Thus, the increase in the need for accommodation has hugely increased the demands for hotels which in turn has boosted the growth of the hospitality sector in India especially that of the hotel industry. The hospitality industry witnessed a mixed year in 2008. In this article, we shall examine the factors that contributed to the growth and some of the challenges that this sector faces. The sector began the year 2008 on a strong note. Rising tourist inflow, higher occupancy and room rates continued to benefit the hotel players. In the first four months of the year, the tourist arrivals were higher by 11. 7% YoY. Existing hotel companies, new foreign players and real estate players continued with their expansion plans. Prospects were looking good, until the sector faced a double blow. Double trouble Lower growth During 1HFY09, lower corporate spending, fluctuating dollar and opening of credit crisis did impact occupancy rates in some cities like Bangalore, Pune, Hyderabad and Chennai.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Managing Human Resources Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits

There are several ways through which organizations can create compensation and reward strategies. How to create a reward plan depends on the compensation philosophy of the organization (Madura 2007). These philosophies include the following: market wage rate, internal equity, and performance based compensation.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The employer can look at the rates paid by other employers and use this as a base for the compensation plan. The employer can also use market survey data to reward by setting salaries below or above what other employers are paying. The employer can also look at how much he values a certain position or employee (internal equity) and set salaries according to this assessment. Performance-based compensation involves rewarding employees based on their performance so that t hey can produce highly. The three crucial steps used for the creation of compensation plans include job analysis, job evaluation and job pricing. Employee benefits and rewards are created by conducting job analysis which involves determining what each job entails, the challenges involved, responsibilities and qualifications required (Callanan Henry 1987). Job evaluation follows job analysis so that jobs are compared against each other and challenging jobs graded higher than simple ones. Job pricing is the final step of creating a compensation plan and this involves establishing the rates that each evaluated job should be paid. The compensation plan for an organization is an integral part of the employer’s strategy to recruit and retain employees. As a result of this, it is important for employers to design a compensation plan that motivates employees to perform higher and achieve job satisfaction. Appropriate components of employee compensation and benefits include the corpo rate strategy, costs, organizational culture and equity. Because the compensation plan should reflect the culture of the organization, it should be based on equity as well as control of costs. Despite the type of compensation plan chosen, the resulting outcome should be motivation of employees. Motivation is one of the key reasons why compensation is carried out. The recruitment and retention strategy guides the employer in determining the ideal compensation plan to use in the organization. Internal equity and regulation of costs are controls that ensure the decided compensation plan is effective in terms of practicability and ability to achieve the recruitment and retention strategy.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organizational and market data can be used to perform human resource functions. Human capital is the most difficult to manage because unlike other resources , human beings are unpredictable and dynamic. They deserve to be treated with uttermost care so as to keep them motivated and responsive to change in the organization. The human resources personnel can obtain useful personnel data from the market and within the organization (Cascio, W. E. (2010). Market surveys can reveal the amounts paid by other organizations in the same industry. This information is useful during the development of recruitment and retention strategies since employers can decide to either attract and retain highly qualified personnel by paying more than competitors or reduce the workforce by paying below the market rate. Human resource data can also be obtained from within the organization through activities such as job analysis, evaluation and pricing. Human resource personnel can conduct these activities within the organization so as to effectively determine compensation plans that will lead to achievement of the recruitment and retention strategy. Human capital management therefore does not involve overseeing employee behavior only but also collecting and analyzing data from the market and within the organization. References Callanan, J. Henry, P. (1987). Sales Management and Motivation. New York: F. Watts. Cascio, W. E. (2010). Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work  Life, Profits, 8th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill Company. Madura, J. (2007). Introduction to Business. Belmont: Thompson/South-Western. This assessment on Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits was written and submitted by user Eliseo Waters to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Attack on Fort Sumter Began the Civil War in 1861

Attack on Fort Sumter Began the Civil War in 1861 The shelling of Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861 marked the beginning of the American Civil War. With the booming of cannons over the harbor in Charleston, South Carolina, the secession crisis gripping the country escalated into a shooting war. The attack on the fort was the culmination of a simmering conflict in which a small garrison of Union troops in South Carolina found themselves isolated when the state seceded from the Union. The action at Fort Sumter lasted less than two days and had no great tactical significance. And casualties were minor. But the symbolism was enormous on both sides. Once Fort Sumter was fired upon there was no turning back. The North and the South were at war. The Crisis Began With Lincolns Election in 1860 Following the election of Abraham Lincoln, the candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party, in 1860, the state of South Carolina announced its intention to secede from the Union in December 1860. Declaring itself independent of the United States, the state government demanded that federal troops leave. Anticipating trouble, the administration of the outgoing president, James Buchanan, had ordered a reliable U.S. Army officer, Major Robert Anderson, to Charleston in late November 1860 to command the small outpost of federal troops guarding the harbor. Major Anderson realized that his small garrison at Fort Moultrie was in danger as it could easily be overrun by infantry. On the night of December 26, 1860, Anderson surprised even members of his own staff by ordering a move to a fort situated on an island in Charleston Harbor, Fort Sumter. Fort Sumter had been built after the War of 1812 to protect the city of Charleston from foreign invasion, and it was designed to repel a naval attack, not a bombardment from the city itself. But Major Anderson felt it was the safest place in which to place his command, which numbered less than 150 men. The secessionist government of South Carolina was outraged by Andersons move to Fort Sumter and demanded that he vacate the fort. Demands that all federal troops leave South Carolina intensified. It was obvious that Major Anderson and his men couldnt hold out for long at Fort Sumter, so the Buchanan administration sent a merchant ship to Charleston to bring provisions to the fort. The ship, Star of the West, was fired on by secessionist shore batteries on January 9, 1861, and was unable to reach the fort. The Crisis at Fort Sumter Intensified While Major Anderson and his men were isolated at Fort Sumter, often cut off from any communication with their own government in Washington, DC, events were escalating elsewhere. Abraham Lincoln traveled from Illinois to Washington for his inauguration. It is believed that a plot to assassinate him on the way was foiled. Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861, and was soon made aware of the seriousness of the crisis at Fort Sumter. Told that the fort would run out of provisions, Lincoln ordered ships of the U.S. Navy to sail to Charleston and supply the fort. The newly formed Confederate government kept up demands that Major Anderson surrender the fort and leave Charleston with his men. Anderson refused, and at 4:30 a.m. on April 12, 1861, Confederate cannon positioned at various points on the mainland began shelling Fort Sumter. The Battle of Fort Sumter The shelling by Confederates from several positions surrounding Fort Sumter went unanswered until after daylight, when Union gunners began returning fire. Both sides exchanged cannon fire throughout the day of April 12, 1861. By nightfall, the pace of the cannons had slowed, and a heavy rain pelted the harbor. When morning dawned clear the cannons roared again, and fires began to break out at Fort Sumter. With the fort in ruins, and with supplies running out, Major Anderson was forced to surrender. Under the surrender terms, the federal troops at Fort Sumter would essentially pack up and sail to a northern port. On the afternoon of April 13, Major Anderson ordered a white flag to be raised over Fort Sumter. The attack on Fort Sumter had produced no combat casualties, though two federal troops died during a freak accident at a ceremony after the surrender when a cannon misfired. The federal troops were able to board one of the U.S. Navy ships which had been sent to bring supplies to the fort, and they sailed to New York City. Upon arrival in New York, Major Anderson learned that he was considered a national hero for having defended the fort and the national flag at Fort Sumter. Impact of the Attack on Fort Sumter The citizens of the North were outraged by the attack on Fort Sumter. And Major Anderson, with the flag that had flown over the fort, appeared at a massive rally in New York Citys Union Square on April 20, 1861. The New York Times estimated the crowd at more than 100,000 people. Major Anderson also toured the northern states, recruiting troops. In the South, feelings also ran high. The men who fired the cannons at Fort Sumter were considered heroes, and the newly formed Confederate government was emboldened to form an army and plan for war. While the action at Fort Sumter had not amounted to much militarily, the symbolism of it was enormous, and intense feelings over what had happened propelled the nation into a conflict that would not end for four long and bloody years.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

An Epidemic of Food Poisoning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

An Epidemic of Food Poisoning - Essay Example The etiological agents for this epidemic of food poisoning is bacteria (Emedicine, 2008). Bacterial food poisoning agents such as salmonellae, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus and vibrio cholerae are all possible etiological causes for this instance of food poisoning (Emedicine, 2008). Other agents such as E. coli and shigella are precluded because the symptoms enlisted in the case study do not corroborate with those that are manifest by victims of these latter food poisoning agents (Emedicine, 2008). The E . coli/shigella combine produce symptoms that are hemorrhagic in nature, symptoms that are absent from those listed in the case study. Among all these bacterial agents one viral agent can be included - Norwalk virus. The symptoms manifested by victims of norwalk virus poisoning corroborate exactly with those manifested by the victims of the case study epidemic (Emedicine, 2008). It was definitely food infection as enlisted bacterial or viral agents are harmful only when a substantial number enters the host's, usually humans and primates, body and multiplies and starts secreting toxins that adversely affect the host physiology. In contrast, toxification of food is usually a phenomenon that is caused by toxin producing agents like some varieties of mushrooms (Emedicine, 2008). ... Answer 2: It was definitely food infection as enlisted bacterial or viral agents are harmful only when a substantial number enters the host's, usually humans and primates, body and multiplies and starts secreting toxins that adversely affect the host physiology. In contrast, toxification of food is usually a phenomenon that is caused by toxin producing agents like some varieties of mushrooms (Emedicine, 2008). Toxins in food like large game fish can also be induced by such fish feeding on dinoflagellates like algae (Arnold, 2007). This is a source of ciguatera poisoning (Arnold, 2007). Another common source of food poisoning through toxicity in fish is scromboid poisoning associated with dark meat fish such as tuna, albacore and mackerel (Patrick, 2007). These are precluded in favor of food-borne infection by bacterial or viral agents because of lack of appropriate symptoms and duration of such symptoms. Question 3: How did the food get contaminated and which item was contaminated Answer 3: Careful study of the data attached with the case study reveals some facts. The data is of the symptoms evidenced in each person who attended the dinner at Port Allen, Louisiana, and the particular items of food each consumed there. The data also includes the particular hour and day on which the symptoms started developing and their duration. When the data set was scanned with an elimination method in which each item was scanned against persons who had eaten it and had developed the telltale symptoms - diarrhea, cramps, weakness, nausea, chills, headache, fever and vomiting - there was no clear indication that any one food item was responsible for the infection outbreak. This is quite in corroboration with what the initial laboratory analysis had revealed - that most of